Home        8-10 Math Lesson Plans       Original Lesson Plan        Awareness

 

Financial Planning:

Diversity of Learners Adaptation

 

The Financial Planning original lesson plan was written by Karen Gauvreau, retrieved from http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/1003.html, adaptation by Debra L. Clark, PhD

 

Enacting this lesson plan addresses the following Ohio academic benchmarks: 

 

Benchmark  Grades Subject Area
C 8th-10th Math: Number, Number Sense, and Operations
F 8th-10th Math: Measurement
C 8th-10th Math: Patterns, Functions, and Algebra
J 8th-10th Math: Patterns, Functions, and Algebra
C 8th-10th Math: Data Analysis and Probability
D 8th-10th Math: Data Analysis and Probability
E 8th-10th Math: Data Analysis and Probability
G 8th-10th Math: Data Analysis and Probability
J 8th-10th Math: Data Analysis and Probability
A 8th-10th Math: Mathematical Processes
B 8th-10th Math: Mathematical Processes
C 8th-10th Math: Mathematical Processes
D 8th-10th Math: Mathematical Processes
E 8th-10th Math: Mathematical Processes
F 8th-10th Math: Mathematical Processes
G 8th-10th Math: Mathematical Processes
H 8th-10th Math: Mathematical Processes
F 8th-10th Language Arts: Writing Processes
A 8th-10th Language Arts: Research
B 8th-10th Language Arts: Research
C 8th-10th Language Arts: Research
D 8th-10th Language Arts: Research
E 8th-10th Language Arts: Research
A 8th-10th Language Arts: Communication: Oral and Visual
D 8th-10th Language Arts: Communication: Oral and Visual
E 8th-10th Language Arts: Communication: Oral and Visual
G 8th-10th Language Arts: Communication: Oral and Visual
F 9th-10th Social Studies: History
B 9th-10th Social Studies: People in Societies
B 9th-10th Social Studies: Social Studies Skills and Methods

 

 

One of the primary pieces of knowledge to utilize when ensuring that a lesson addresses a diversity of learners is Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences.  Below are web sites that can be utilized to refresh one's memory or to learn for the first time about Gardner's theory:

http://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm

http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/mi/front_mi.htm

http://www.multi-intell.com/MI_chart.html

http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr054.shtml

Many scholars argue that females learn better in collaborative settings (see http://www.icme-organisers.dk/tsg26/3MaryBarnes.rtf for a discussion of this belief); others argue that some ethnicities, such as African-Americans and Native Americans also learn better in a collaborative setting (see http://www.evergreen.edu/washcenter/spring1993_15-17.pdf for a discussion of this belief).  Thus by addressing the interpersonal intelligence as defined by Gardner one should be engaging in the first step of attending to  a diversity of learners as it may relate to gender and ethnicities.  By addressing all of the intelligences one is also more likely to attend to language differences as well as learning disabilities.  Below is a list of ways to incorporate Gardner's theory and to also address a diversity of learners.

Though students will be drawn to those activities that are in line with their individual intelligences, it is advised that all students at least attempt a try all of the activities.  In doing so, they might discover an unknown talent or intelligence.

 

Application of Gardner's theory:

Verbal/linguistic 

 

The original lesson plan provides an activity which will help students understand their future incomes and budgets; the multicultural awareness and appreciation adaptation helps students understand the discrepancy of lifestyles based on social class.  This adaptation will help students gain a clearer picture of their chosen career and lifestyle.  Have students locate, interview, and if possible, shadow an individual in the career of their choice.  During the interview, it is important that students ask the interviewee the stresses and rewards of their career, as well as time requirements and necessary education and training.  After students complete the activities for all intelligences, they will organize and present their information for an oral report to the class.

 

Logical/mathematical  

 

After the interview and shadow experience is complete, students need to determine the cost of training for this career, future salary and a future budget.  To determine the cost of training, the following websites will assist students in locating necessary data:

 

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0781878.html (Charter of costs of higher education, 1986 - 2002; will assist students in projecting the future costs of a college or vocational education degree)

http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/college/rankings/rankindex_brief.php (tools for identifying top colleges and universities, as well as links to the institutions)

 

To determine future salary, the following websites will assist students in locating data:

 

ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/suppl/ECI.ECHISTRY.TXT (links to salaries and wages 1989-1995; for salary projections)

 

Students should use excel to determine a future budget.  Remind students that they should make sure to include in their budgets line items for taxes, health care costs, transportation, food, housing, and, if expected, children.  The following links will assist students in making these determinations:

 

http://www.newyorker.com/talk/content/?030818ta_talk_surowiecki (Cost of children)

http://www.cms.hhs.gov/statistics/health-indicators/default.asp (Links to healthcare costs)

http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/fw4.pdf (2005 W-4 form)

http://www.irs.gov/taxstats/indtaxstats/article/0,,id=96981,00.html (Links to statistics regarding individual taxes by salary)

http://www.bankrate.com/brm/movecalc.asp (Cost of living calculator)

 

Visual/Spatial 

 

Students with visual/intelligence should be drawn to visual/spatial entertainment such as going to movies, art museums, producing art, etc.  Make sure that students include this type of entertainment in their budgets.

               

Bodily/kinesthetic  

 

Students with bodily/kinesthetic intelligences should be draw to watching or participating in sporting or dance entertainment.  Make sure that students include this type of entertainment in their budget.

 

Musical/rhythmical  

 

Students with musical/kinesthetic intelligence should be drawn toward watching or participating in  music based entertainment such as concerts or buying compact disks.  Make sure that students include this type of entertainment in their budget.

 

Naturalist   

 

Students with naturalist intelligence should be drawn toward activities such as camping, hiking, gardening, etc.   Make sure that students include this type of entertainment in their budget.

 

 

Final Thoughts on this activity

 

If at any point in this activity, students decide that they no longer want to pursue their original career choice, allow them to chose another career choice, but repeat the activity form the beginning.  Also, notify students that their final oral report should include a discussion of why they made this decision.

 

Final Thoughts on Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

 

All of the above intelligences are content specific.  The intelligences of interpersonal and intrapersonal are different in that they are more tied to another theory Myers Briggs theory of personality development, specifically the introvert/extrovert dimension.  A commonly held belief is that introverts are shy and non-verbal, whereas extroverts are outgoing and very verbal.  This is only part of the story of this dimension.  Yes, introverts tend to be less verbal and extroverts tend to be more verbal.  However, the reason behind these tendencies is what is important for teachers to understand.  The reasons behind these tendencies are directly tied to the intelligences of interpersonal and intrapersonal.

 

Introverts and individuals with intrapersonal intelligence are very able to speak, but must be given the opportunity to do so.  Introverts and individuals with intrapersonal intelligence have an internal energy base.  In other words, these individuals become energized when able to spend time alone.  This internal energy base is also why individuals who are introverts and have intrapersonal intelligence need quiet time to think and process information.  Once these students are given the time to process information internally, they are very willing and able to share their thoughts.  A classroom activity that should occur everyday is time to think.  An easy way for teachers to ensure this occurs is to put into the daily schedule time for journaling. Extroverts and individuals with interpersonal intelligence process information and gain energy in an opposite process.  Extroverts gain energy through interactions with others; extroverts need to talk to think.  Thus, whereas introverts and individuals with intrapersonal intelligence need quiet time to think, extroverts need others to speak to in order to think.  To meet the needs of these students, small and large group activities are most beneficial.                      

                      

Working with students with visual impairments

When working with a disabled student it is important for the teacher to understand how the student experiences the world.  The following links will assist a teacher in better understanding the life of a student with a visual impairment:

http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/text/vision_impair.html

http://www.cnib.ca/e3a/team4/tieachblind-visualimpared.htm

http://www.blind.net/bg340001.htm

http://www.lifesci.sussex.ac.uk/reginald-phillips/beginnersPaper.htm (materials to assist visually impaired students)

If you would like to learn more about Braille materials and other teaching tools for students who are blind, the American Foundation for the Blind web site provides numerous resources for classroom teachers:  http://www.afb.org.

All of the above activities are possible for a student with a visual impairment, however, they may need assistance.  Also, while in public school, the cost of necessary personnel or technological assistance is the responsibility of the school.  Hence, the budget of these students should include costs of assistance.  Their final report should also include information regarding agencies that might help with these costs such as the Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation.  The following website from the American Council for the Blind also provides links for financial assistance for individuals with visual impairments: http://www.acb.org/resources/finaid.html

 

Working with students with Auditory impairments

the following web sites will assist teachers in better understanding the life of a student with a auditory impairment:

http://www.ohlone.edu/org/dsps/dspsfacultyhandbook/classroomtips.html         

http://snow.utoronto.ca/best/accommodate/deaf.html

http://www.und.edu/dept/dss/Questions%20Commonly%20Asked%20About%20Teaching%20Deaf%20Adult%20Students.htm

http://deafness.about.com/cs/schooling/a/backtoschool.htm

All of the above activities are possible for a student with a auditory impairment, however, they may need assistance.  Also, while in public school, the cost of necessary personnel or technological assistance is the responsibility of the school.  Hence, the budget of these students should include costs of assistance.  Their final report should also include information regarding agencies that might help with these costs such as the Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation.  The following website from HearingLoss.org  also provides links to financial assistance for individuals with auditory impairments: http://www.hearingloss.org/hat/faha.html.   The following website provides information regarding scholarships for individuals with hearing impairments: http://www.mcpo.org/aid.asp.

 

Working with students with behavioral problems

The following web sites will assist teachers in better understanding the life of a student with a behavioral impairment: 

http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/behavior.html

http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/behavior_disorders.html

http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/research/rb1txt.htm

Students with behavioral problems respond well to structure and systematic rewards.  Thus two types of classroom situations can become problematic.  When students are required to sit quietly for an extended period of time, this presents a unique challenge for the child with a behavioral impairment.  In contrast, new activities that give students much freedom to make decisions can also be problematic for the child with a behavioral impairment.  Nonetheless, students with behavioral problems need to adapt to these situations.  Thus, when these diametrically opposed situations occur, the teacher needs to be cognizant of the challenges a student with behavior problems might be experiencing and provide positive reinforcement in these situation.  The independent nature of this activity could be difficult for a student with a behavioral problem.  However, by the eighth grade, these students should have developed means for controlling their behavior.  If this has not occurred, a component of their research should be the consequences of uncontrolled behavior in the workplace and/or the focus of their research should initially be identifying a career in which their behavior problems would not be an issue on the job or during training.

 

Working with students with autism

The following web sites will assist teachers in better understanding the life of a student with autism.

http://ericec.org/digests/e582.html

http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/docs/autism.pdf

http://members.aol.com/Room5/strat.html

http://www.ddc.ohio.gov/Pub/ASDGuide.PDF

Students with autism are much like students with behavioral problems in that structure and positive reinforcements are very important.  Another important aspect of the classroom environment is repetition.  Thus, for the above lesson tie all components to previous classroom activities.    For this activity, the interview and shadowing experience could be particularly problematic.  Thus assistance for this activity in the form of a teacher's aid or an adult volunteer would be advantageous.   Also the student with autism should incorporate information regarding the employment of individuals with autism.  The following links should be helpful for students with autism:

http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer (Autism Society of America)

 

http://www.autismohio.org/ (Autism Society of Ohio)

 

http://www.milestones.org/ (Milestones organization)

 

http://www.autcom.org/ (Autism National Committee)